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17.1 debug

Suppose you have written a function definition that is intended to return the sum of the numbers 1 through a given number. (This is the triangle function discussed earlier. See Example with Decrementing Counter, for a discussion.)

However, your function definition has a bug. You have mistyped ‘1=’ for ‘1-’. Here is the broken definition:

     (defun triangle-bugged (number)
       "Return sum of numbers 1 through NUMBER inclusive."
       (let ((total 0))
         (while (> number 0)
           (setq total (+ total number))
           (setq number (1= number)))      ; Error here.

If you are reading this in Info, you can evaluate this definition in the normal fashion. You will see triangle-bugged appear in the echo area.

Now evaluate the triangle-bugged function with an argument of 4:

     (triangle-bugged 4)

In a recent GNU Emacs, you will create and enter a *Backtrace* buffer that says:

     ---------- Buffer: *Backtrace* ----------
     Debugger entered--Lisp error: (void-function 1=)
       (1= number)
       (setq number (1= number))
       (while (> number 0) (setq total (+ total number))
             (setq number (1= number)))
       (let ((total 0)) (while (> number 0) (setq total ...)
         (setq number ...)) total)
       eval((triangle-bugged 4))
     ---------- Buffer: *Backtrace* ----------

(I have reformatted this example slightly; the debugger does not fold long lines. As usual, you can quit the debugger by typing q in the *Backtrace* buffer.)

In practice, for a bug as simple as this, the `Lisp error' line will tell you what you need to know to correct the definition. The function 1= is `void'.

However, suppose you are not quite certain what is going on? You can read the complete backtrace.

In this case, you need to run a recent GNU Emacs, which automatically starts the debugger that puts you in the *Backtrace* buffer; or else, you need to start the debugger manually as described below.

Read the *Backtrace* buffer from the bottom up; it tells you what Emacs did that led to the error. Emacs made an interactive call to C-x C-e (eval-last-sexp), which led to the evaluation of the triangle-bugged expression. Each line above tells you what the Lisp interpreter evaluated next.

The third line from the top of the buffer is

     (setq number (1= number))

Emacs tried to evaluate this expression; in order to do so, it tried to evaluate the inner expression shown on the second line from the top:

     (1= number)

This is where the error occurred; as the top line says:

     Debugger entered--Lisp error: (void-function 1=)

You can correct the mistake, re-evaluate the function definition, and then run your test again.