Evolution and excitation conditions of outflows in high-mass star-forming regions

Дата и время публикации : 2013-05-15T13:44:30Z

Авторы публикации и институты :
A. Sanchez-Monge (INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri)
A. Lopez-Sepulcre (IPAG-Grenoble)
R. Cesaroni (INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri)
C. M. Walmsley (INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, DIAS)
C. Codella (INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri)
M. T. Beltran (INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri)
M. Pestalozzi (IAPS-INAF)
S. Molinari (IAPS-INAF)

Ссылка на журнал-издание: Ссылка на журнал-издание не найдена
Коментарии к cтатье: 31 pages, 10 figures and 5 tables (plus 2 figures and 3 tables in the appendix). Accepted for publication in A&A. [Abstract modified to fit the arXiv requirements.]
Первичная категория: astro-ph.GA

Все категории : astro-ph.GA

Краткий обзор статьи: Theoretical models suggest that massive stars form via disk-mediated accretion, with bipolar outflows playing a fundamental role. A recent study toward massive molecular outflows has revealed a decrease of the SiO line intensity as the object evolves. The present study aims at characterizing the variation of the molecular outflow properties with time, and at studying the SiO excitation conditions in outflows associated with massive YSOs. We used the IRAM30m telescope to map 14 massive star-forming regions in the SiO(2-1), SiO(5-4) and HCO+(1-0) outflow lines, and in several dense gas and hot core tracers. Hi-GAL data was used to improve the spectral energy distributions and the L/M ratio, which is believed to be a good indicator of the evolutionary stage of the YSO. We detect SiO and HCO+ outflow emission in all the sources, and bipolar structures in six of them. The outflow parameters are similar to those found toward other massive YSOs. We find an increase of the HCO+ outflow energetics as the object evolve, and a decrease of the SiO abundance with time, from 10^(-8) to 10^(-9). The SiO(5-4) to (2-1) line ratio is found to be low at the ambient gas velocity, and increases as we move to high velocities, indicating that the excitation conditions of the SiO change with the velocity of the gas (with larger densities and/or temperatures for the high-velocity gas component). The properties of the SiO and HCO+ outflow emission suggest a scenario in which SiO is largely enhanced in the first evolutionary stages, probably due to strong shocks produced by the protostellar jet. As the object evolves, the power of the jet would decrease and so does the SiO abundance. During this process, however, the material surrounding the protostar would have been been swept up by the jet, and the outflow activity, traced by entrained molecular material (HCO+), would increase with time.

Category: Physics