The enigmatic nature of the circumstellar envelope and bow shock surrounding Betelgeuse as revealed by Herschel. I. Evidence of clumps, multiple arcs, and a linear bar-like structure

Дата и время публикации : 2012-12-19T22:14:38Z

Авторы публикации и институты :
L. Decin
N. L. J. Cox
P. Royer
A. J. Van Marle
B. Vandenbussche
D. Ladjal
F. Kerschbaum
R. Ottensamer
M. J. Barlow
J. A. D. L. Blommaert
H. L. Gomez
M. A. T. Groenewegen
T. Lim
B. M. Swinyard
C. Waelkens
A. G. G. M. Tielens

Ссылка на журнал-издание: 2012, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 548, A113
Коментарии к cтатье: 26 pages
Первичная категория: astro-ph.SR

Все категории : astro-ph.SR

Краткий обзор статьи: Context. The interaction between stellar winds and the interstellar medium (ISM) can create complex bow shocks. The photometers on board the Herschel Space Observatory are ideally suited to studying the morphologies of these bow shocks. Aims. We aim to study the circumstellar environment and wind-ISM interaction of the nearest red supergiant, Betelgeuse. Methods. Herschel PACS images at 70, 100, and 160 micron and SPIRE images at 250, 350, and 500 micron were obtained by scanning the region around Betelgeuse. These data were complemented with ultraviolet GALEX data, near-infrared WISE data, and radio 21 cm GALFA-HI data. The observational properties of the bow shock structure were deduced from the data and compared with hydrodynamical simulations. Results. The infrared Herschel images of the environment around Betelgeuse are spectacular, showing the occurrence of multiple arcs at 6-7 arcmin from the central target and the presence of a linear bar at 9 arcmin. Remarkably, no large-scale instabilities are seen in the outer arcs and linear bar. The dust temperature in the outer arcs varies between 40 and 140 K, with the linear bar having the same colour temperature as the arcs. The inner envelope shows clear evidence of a non-homogeneous clumpy structure (beyond 15 arcsec), probably related to the giant convection cells of the outer atmosphere. The non-homogeneous distribution of the material even persists until the collision with the ISM. A strong variation in brightness of the inner clumps at a radius of 2 arcmin suggests a drastic change in mean gas and dust density some 32 000 yr ago. Using hydrodynamical simulations, we try to explain the observed morphology of the bow shock around Betelgeuse. Conclusions: [abbreviated]

Category: Physics