Radiation Transfer of Models of Massive Star Formation. II. Effects of the Outflow

Дата и время публикации : 2012-12-17T06:45:05Z

Авторы публикации и институты :
Yichen Zhang
Jonathan C. Tan
Christopher F. McKee

Ссылка на журнал-издание: Ссылка на журнал-издание не найдена
Коментарии к cтатье: 23 pages, 17 figures, 2 tables, accepted to ApJ
Первичная категория: astro-ph.GA

Все категории : astro-ph.GA, astro-ph.SR

Краткий обзор статьи: (Abridged) We present radiation transfer simulations of a massive (8 Msun) protostar forming from a massive (Mc=60 Msun) protostellar core, extending the model developed by Zhang & Tan (2011). The two principal improvements are (1) developing a model for the density and velocity structure of a disk wind that fills the bipolar outflow cavities; and (2) solving for the radially varying accretion rate in the disk due to a supply of mass and angular momentum from the infall envelope and their loss to the disk wind. One consequence of the launching of the disk wind is a reduction in the amount of accretion power that is radiated by the disk. For the transition from dusty to dust-free conditions where gas opacities dominate, we now implement a gradual change as a more realistic approximation of dust destruction. We study how the above effects, especially the outflow, influence the SEDs and the images of the protostar. Dust in the outflow cavity significantly affects the SEDs at most viewing angles. It further attenuates the short-wavelength flux from the protostar, controlling how the accretion disk may be viewed, and contributes a significant part of the near- and mid-IR fluxes. These fluxes warm the disk, boosting the mid- and far-IR emission. We find that for near face-on views, the SED from the near-IR to about 60 micron is very flat, which may be used to identify such systems. We show that the near-facing outflow cavity and its walls are still the most significant features in images up to 70 micron, dominating the mid-IR emission and determining its morphology. The thermal emission from the dusty outflow itself dominates the flux at ~20 micron. The detailed distribution of the dust in the outflow affects the morphology, for example, even though the outflow cavity is wide, at 10 to 20 micron, the dust in the disk wind can make the outflow appear narrower than in the near-IR bands.

Category: Physics