Supermassive Seeds for Supermassive Black Holes

Дата и время публикации : 2012-11-02T20:01:04Z

Авторы публикации и институты :
Jarrett L. Johnson (LANL)
Daniel J. Whalen (CMU, LANL)
Hui Li (LANL)
Daniel E. Holz (U. of Chicago)

Ссылка на журнал-издание: Ссылка на журнал-издание не найдена
Коментарии к cтатье: 9 pages, 2 figures; accepted for publication in ApJ
Первичная категория: astro-ph.CO

Все категории : astro-ph.CO

Краткий обзор статьи: Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z > 7 constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we elucidate the implications of the radiative feedback from early generations of stars and from BH accretion for popular models for the formation and growth of seed BHs. We show that by properly accounting for (1) the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from cosmological simulations of early star formation and radiative feedback, (2) the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and (3) the large radiative efficiencies (e_rad) of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift (e_rad > 0.1), we are led to the conclusion that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as > 10^5 M_Sun. This presents a strong challenge to the Population III seed model, which calls for seed masses of ~ 100 M_Sun and, even with constant Eddington-limited accretion, requires e_rad < 0.09 to explain the highest-z SMBHs in today’s standard LambdaCDM cosmological model. It is, however, consistent with the prediction of the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation, in which a supermassive primordial star forms in a region of the universe with a high molecule-dissociating background radiation field, and collapses directly into a 10^4–10^6 M_Sun seed BH. These results corroborate recent cosmological simulations and observational campaigns which suggest that these massive BHs were the seeds of a large fraction of the SMBHs residing in the centers of galaxies today.

Category: Physics