Ion acceleration in non-relativistic astrophysical shocks

Дата и время публикации : 2011-07-05T01:00:59Z

Авторы публикации и институты :
L. Gargaté
A. Spitkovsky

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Первичная категория: astro-ph.HE

Все категории : astro-ph.HE

Краткий обзор статьи: We explore the physics of shock evolution and particle acceleration in non-relativistic collisionless shocks using multidimensional hybrid simulations. We analyze a wide range of physical parameters relevant to the acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs) in astrophysical non-relativistic shock scenarios, such as in supernova remnant (SNR) shocks. We explore the evolution of the shock structure and particle acceleration efficiency as a function of Alfv’enic Mach number and magnetic field inclination angle $theta$. We show that there are fundamental differences between high and low Mach number shocks in terms of the electromagnetic turbulence generated in the pre-shock zone and downstream; dominant modes are resonant with the streaming CRs in the low Mach number regime, while both resonant and non-resonant modes are present for high Mach numbers. Energetic power law tails for ions in the downstream plasma can account for up to 15% of the incoming upstream flow energy, distributed over $sim5%$ of the particles in a power law with slope $-2pm0.2$ in energy. The energy conversion efficiency (for CRs) peaks at $theta=15^circ$ to $30^circ$ and $M_A=6$, and decreases for higher Mach numbers, down to $sim2%$ for $M_A=31$. Accelerated particles are produced by Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA) and by Shock Drift Acceleration (SDA) mechanisms, with the SDA contribution to the overall energy gain increasing with magnetic inclination. We also present a direct comparison between hybrid and fully kinetic particle-in-cell results at early times; the agreement between the two models justifies the use of hybrid simulations for longer-term shock evolution. In SNR shocks, particle acceleration will be significant for low Mach number quasi-parallel flows ($M_A < 30$, $theta< 45$). This finding underscores the need for effective magnetic amplification mechanism in SNR shocks.

Category: Physics